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  • 設為首頁 加入收藏 舊版網站 English 山西省自然辨證法研究會
    學術講堂
    學術講堂
    首頁» 學術講堂
    Lev Vaidman教授學術報告會(一)
    2018-10-23

      2018年10月12日上午,我中心有幸邀請到來自以色列特拉維夫大學的Lev Vaidman教授為中心師生進行專題講座,講座主題為“從量子奇跡到多世界”(From quantum miracles to many worlds)。本次講座由我中心趙丹副教授主持,中心教師和碩博士研究生共計60余人參加了本次講座。

      Lev Vaidman教授列舉了三個量子力學中的“奇跡”,即貝爾定理(Bell theorem)、量子隱形傳態(quantum teleportation)和無相互作用測量(interaction-free measurement)。他認為如果我們用經典物理學的思維去理解這些現象,會覺得不可思議,而通過多世界理論去解釋,這三個“奇跡”就不再是奇跡了。

      具體地,貝爾定理指的是量子理論中的超距作用這一“奇跡”,即非定域性。貝爾定理指出定域的隱變量理論不能夠重復量子力學的預言。Vaidman教授通俗地用游戲中的矛盾解釋了GHZ定理,即將貝爾定理的結果推廣到3個粒子的情形。GHZ情形下存在的奇跡是,通過遠距離的作用改變其中一個粒子的自旋態。

      Vaidman教授講到的第二個奇跡是量子隱形傳態。在經典物理視角下,物質不能在時空中“跳躍”,而在量子隱形傳態,利用糾纏光子對特有的性質實現遠程對量子態的重現,如通過發送只是2個比特將兩個實數進行傳輸,因此可以實現使用少量的比特遠距離傳送大量的(不可讀的)信息。

      第三個奇跡是指無相互作用測量,即在不接觸物體的情況下測量到它的一種測量,如在Elitzur-Vaidman炸彈實驗中不需要引爆炸彈就能夠檢測到特定位置處是否有炸彈。對基本的Elitzur-Vaidman炸彈實驗進行改進,可以做到有炸彈時光子從炸彈光路上經過的概率趨近于0,但是我們仍然可以檢測到炸彈。這在經典物理學視角下看起來是一個悖論。

      多世界解釋中只需要一個按照薛定諤方程演化的波函數,存在著與我們經驗到的世界相類似的多重世界,測量使得世界進行了分裂,世界之間不存在交流。通過多世界理論的視角來看,那些世界都在那里,我們處于其中的一個世界。在GHZ定理中,并不存在對遠處自旋的改變,因為本來各個狀態的自旋本來就存在于多重世界之中。在所有的多重世界中,量子隱形傳態中在終端所有的可能態分別存在于不同的世界中,只是在我們的世界中我們處于與初始端相同的態而已。在我們的世界里,沒有光子來引爆炸彈,而光子在另一個世界中則引爆了炸彈。多世界理論消除了隨機性和超距作用,能夠解釋為什么我們擁有隨機性和貝爾非定域性的錯覺。

      針對Lev Vaidman教授的報告內容,我中心趙丹老師做了簡短總結,在場師生與Lev Vaidman教授進行了交流與討論。通過此次報告,大家對當前量子力學有了更深的了解,開闊了大家的國際視野,取得了很好的交流效果。本次報告在師生們熱烈的掌聲中圓滿結束。

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