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  • 設為首頁 加入收藏 舊版網站 English 山西省自然辨證法研究會
    學術講堂
    學術講堂
    首頁» 學術講堂
    Angelo Bassi教授學術報告會
    2018-10-24

      10月12日晚,科學技術哲學研究中心有幸邀請到了意大利的里雅斯特大學安杰洛·巴斯(Angelo Bassi)教授為中心師生做了題為“Introduction to models of spontaneous wave function collapse”的學術報告,報告由中心趙丹副教授主持。

      巴斯教授首先對量子力學的基本理論進行了簡要介紹,:量子力學是在原子和亞原子尺度上研究物質和光的性質的理論,盡管現在量子力學取得了巨大的成功,但關于它的意義和未來的爭論仍在繼續。他引用美國著名物理學家史蒂文·溫伯格的話:“我對量子力學的未來不像以前那么確定了”。

      巴斯教授從雙縫實驗開始回顧了量子理論的發展過程,指出引入“波粒二象性”概念的必要性,并用薛定諤的貓例示了量子力學中著名的測量問題。量子波函數并不直接確定系統的性質,它只是給出了測量結果的概率。因此,量子力學假設存在一個經典世界,觀測者在量子系統上進行測量。巴斯教授給出了量子力學的四條公理:1.每個物理系統都有一個波函數Ψ(x,t);2.波函數根據薛定諤方程隨時間演化;3.在t時刻x處找到一個粒子的概率是:P(x,t) = |Ψ(x,t)|2 ,波函數不涉及系統的性質,這就解釋了物質(和光)的波動性;4.在測量后,發現粒子的波函數發生坍縮(坍縮過程)。

      量子力學的哥本哈根解釋假定了在由量子力學支配的微觀世界和由經典物理學支配的宏觀儀器和觀察者之間存在一種神奇的界線。貝爾質疑說,量子理論是關于測量結果的,但是是什么使得某個物理系統有資格扮演觀察者的角色。巴斯教授介紹了兩種關于這種測量問題的求解,即玻姆力學和自發塌縮模型。玻姆理論中粒子總是具有確定的位置,且很好地按照確定的軌跡來移動,但是需要在薛定諤方程之外引入一個關于軌跡的導引方程。這樣一來也能夠為雙縫實驗進行自然的解釋。玻姆力學不需要波函數的塌縮,但理論需要引入非定域性。自發塌縮模型則對薛定諤方程本身進行了非線性和隨機的修正,如GRW模型,CSL模型等。近些年來在實驗方面有許多的進展在檢測塌縮模型是否正確,但目前的實驗離現有的模型的應用范圍仍有距離。

      最后巴斯教授引入Leggett的話作為結束語:“我傾向于為這樣的觀念下賭注,即如果你足夠努力去研究量子力學,它將會崩潰并被其他一些理論所替代,而這些理論是目前我們所不能夠想象的。”

      報告之后中心老師和同學們就相關問題與巴斯教授展開了熱烈的討論,進一步推進了大家對于量子力學領域內的一些具體問題的認識,本次報告在大家的掌聲中圓滿結束。

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